Cooking Abbreviations, Substitutions, Equivalants, and Know How
Jun 30, 2000 (Updated Jul 2, 2000)
We each get our cooking inspirations from a variety of sources, and there are many things to know when preparing a recipe we have either read about or been given by a family member, neighbor, co-worker, etc. What do you do when you donít exactly have all the ingredients it calls for, or perhaps donít even recognize the actual cooking jargon your friendly chef has written the recipe in?
Well, if you are like me, you will rack your brain, pull a few hairs, bite your lip, and then call Grandma! My Grandmother is the inspiration for this article, for without her help and cooking know how of days gone by when you literally either 'made do' or went without, this helpful expose would never have been completed.
t - teaspoon
tsp - teaspoon
T - Tablespoon
Tbsp - Tablespoon
c - cup
C - cup
gm. = gram
mg. = milligram
f.g - few grains
sq. = square
pt - pint
qt. - quart
min. = minute (60 seconds)
hr = hour (60 minutes)
mod. = moderate
doz. = dozen (12)
pinch or a dash = less than 1/8 of a teaspoon
d.b - double broiler
B.P - baking powder
oz. - ounce
OZ - ounce
lb - pound
# - pound
pk. - peck
bu. - bushel
1 teaspoon = 60 drops
3 teaspoons = 1 Tablespoon
2 Tablespoons = 1 fluid ounce
4 Tablespoons = 1/4 Cup
5 1/3 Tablespoons = 1/3 Cup
8 Tablespoons = 1/2 Cup
16 Tablespoons = 1 Cup
16 ounces = 1 pound
1 Cup = 1/2 pint, 1 fluid ounce
2 Cups liquid = 1 pound
2 Cups = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
4 Cups = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon
8 quarts = 1 peck
4 pecks = 1 bushel
Making Cooking A Bit Easier:
2 Tablespoons of fat = 1 ounce
1 Cup of fat = 1/2 pound
1 pound of butter = 2 Cups
1 Cup of butter = 1 Cup of hydrogenated fat + 1/2 teaspoon of salt
2 Cups of sugar = 1 pound
2 1/2 Cups of brown sugar packed = 1 pound
1 1/3 Cups of brown sugar packed = 1 Cup of granulated sugar (white)
Brown sugar is used often in cookies and condiment fixings, such as BBQ, teriyaki, and Chinese.
3 1/2 Cups powdered sugar (confectioners) = 1 pound
Powdered sugar is used most often in frostings, candy, and as decoration. Sift over a finished bakery item for a snowy, sweet finishing effect.
4 Cups flour (sifted all purpose) = 1 pound
4 1/2 Cups cake flour, sifted = 1 pound
1 Cup cake flour = 7/8 Cup flour (all purpose)
1 Cup flour (all purpose) = up to 1/2 Cup bran, whole wheat flour, or the amount of cornmeal to add to and level off 1 Cup of flour (all purpose)
Glutton Free Flour:
1 Cup flour (all purpose) = 1/2 Soya flour and 1/2 rice flour
In A Bind? Try These Substitutions:
1 teaspoon baking powder = 1/2 teaspoon baking soda + 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 teaspoon baking powder = 1 teaspoon baking soda + 1/2 Cup buttermilk
1 Cup butter or margarine = 7/8 Cup salad or vegetable oil + 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 Tablespoon flour (all purpose) = 1 Tablespoon granulated tapioca
1 Tablespoon cornstarch = 2 Tablespoon flour
2 Tablespoon cornstarch = 4 Tablespoon flour
1 ounce bitter chocolate = 1 square
3 Tablespoons cocoa + 1 Tablespoon fat (lard, shortening)= 1 square bitter chocolate
4 Tablespoons cocoa + 2 teaspoons butter = 1 ounce of bitter chocolate
6 Tablespoons cocoa + 2 Tablespoons fat (lard, shortening) = 2 squares bitter chocolate
1 Cup egg yolks = 12 - 14 yolks
1 Cup egg whites = 8 - 10 whites
2 egg whites = 1 whole egg
For Thickening Baking Products:
2 egg yolks = 1 whole egg
4 egg yolks = 2 whole eggs
Dried Egg Products:
2 Tablespoons dried whole egg + 2 1/2 Tablespoons water = 1 whole egg
1/2 stick = 1/4 Cup
1 stick = 1/2 Cup
2 sticks = 1 Cup
4 sticks = 2 Cups
1 Cup molasses = 1 Cup of honey
Honey = equal parts molasses or corn syrup
Honey = 1 Cup granulated sugar + 1/4 liquid
Corn Syrup = 1 Cup granulated sugar + 1/4 Cup liquid
1 Cup brown sugar = 3/4 granulated sugar + 1/4 molasses
1 1/3 Cups Powdered Sugar (confectioners) = 1 Cup granulated sugar
1 Cup milk = 1/2 Cup evaporated milk + 1/2 Cup water
1 Cup buttermilk = 1 Cup sweet milk + 1 Tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar
1 Cup buttermilk = 2/3 Cup plain yogurt + 1/3 Cup sweet milk
1/2 Cup reconstituted dry milk, nonfat = 1/4 Cup water
1 Cup reconstituted dry milk, nonfat = 1 Cup skim milk
Heavy cream can be substituted with equal parts of evaporated skim milk.
Soy milk can be substituted in recipes for evaporated or condensed milk.
Applesauce can be substituted for milk and butter in mashed potatoes, although it is a different flavor. But it is still tasty, and less fat per serving overall. Experiment with herbs and spices!
1 Cup sour cream = 1 Cup plain yogurt
1 Cup plain yogurt = 1 Cup buttermilk
Basic dried herbs, 1 Tablespoon fresh = 1 teaspoon dried
1 clove garlic = 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder or 1/4 flakes
1 Tablespoon dried onion = 1 small fresh onion
1 Tablespoon prepared mustard = 1 teaspoon dried mustard
1/2 teaspoon Tabasco = 1/8 teaspoon red pepper flakes or dash of cayenne (red) pepper
To thicken a food dish.
1 Tablespoon cornstarch = 2 Tablespoons flour
Are you making a dessert Ďto die forí? But find that you have no whip topping on hand, or that it has not thawed completely? Try these substitutions.
1 Cup whipping cream = 2 Cups whipped
1 Cup evaporated milk = 3 Cups whipped
1 lemon = 3 - 4 Tablespoons juice
1 orange = 6 - 8 Tablespoons juice
1 Cup uncooked rice = 2 - 3 Cups cooked rice
Use equal parts of applesauce instead of oil for baking.
Skim milk can be substituted for heavy cream in white sauces.
Puree a cooked potato with soup dishes instead of using cream.
Use fruit juice, wine, or bouillon for cooking instead of gravy and various other sauces.
Use dried seasoning mixes for dressings with yogurt or vinegar instead of oil.
Salsa! Salsa on meat, potatoes, eggs, and whatever else you might generally use butter, gravy, cream sauces, or sour cream to spice up a dish with.
Marinate meat and fish dishes in fruit and vegetable juice or wine, such as lemon, orange, or V-8 instead of oil and butter. And use plenty of fresh herbs such as cilantro, basil, rosemary, thyme, etc.
For an appetizer, warm a little olive oil with garlic and seasoning for dipping sourdough bread. The heated oil takes on the flavor exceptionally well and enhances the bread without the added Ďbadí fat of butter.
Thank you Gram, I love and cherish you more than words can say, always. You are truly an inspiration and godsend in times of need, as well as my trusty cheerleader in times of personal strife and accomplishments. *Your Marisky*